Upon receiving our grapes at the winery our philosophy is to allow the sound, ripe fruit that we harvest to be expressed vividly in the finished wine. Our intention is that the unique nature of our vineyard be captured with precision and detail in the glass. This is accomplished by minimizing intervention at every step in the winemaking process. For example, we use a variety of yeasts, including indigenous and selected strains, and avoid the use of enzymes that are used by many vintners to increase juice yield at the press and enhance aromatics. Due to the attention to detail in our vineyards and high quality of our fruit at harvest, we also avoid the use of energy intensive and highly invasive technology such as reverse osmosis. It’s also worth noting that after fermentation we absolutely minimize the use of additives with the exceptions of sulphur for preservation (especially in the whites), and, occasionally, natural fining agents for tannin management in the reds. As well, while many vintners utilize ascorbic acid as a preservative in white wines, we completely avoid its use. For the wines that require oak ageing we rely on traditional oak barrels and eschew the use of oak derivatives such as chips and staves. Finally, it is important to remember that sulphur is a natural by-product of fermentation and, therefore, present in all wines. Again, because we start with very sound fruit from our vineyards, we add only minimal amounts of sulphur to our finished wines. In sum, from press to bottle, we endeavor to absolutely minimize the use of additives and simplify the winemaking process. By making our wines as naturally as possible, we are able to reduce our energy draw hence the carbon footprint involved in our winemaking.